AHS Heartworm Hotline Canine Caval Syndrome Series – Part 2: A Practical Approach to Diagnosing Caval Syndrome

Not long ago, heartworm disease (HWD) was considered a problem of the South—it was endemic in the Southeast, Gulf Coast, and Mississippi Delta regions of the United States. Today, we find heartworms not only present in, but also transmitted in, every state in the continental U.S. as well as Hawaii (Figure 1).1